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Robots roaming in Antarctic waters say that Ross Ice Shelf melts quickly in summer

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Robots roaming in Antarctic waters say that Ross Ice Shelf melts quickly in summer

The new paper puts a new look on the forces that have caused the melting of the world’s largest glacier.

The Ross Ice shelf, part of the Antarctic ice sheets, is several hundred meters long and has an area of ​​480,000 square kilometers, almost the size of Spain.

The size, and the fact that the thin ice shelf will accelerate the flow of ice sheets to the sea in Antarctica, it means that there is a lot of potential for sea level rise in melting.

By the melting of snow shelves like Ross, the sea can rise above several feet in the next few centuries.

A study published in the Geophysical Research Journal helps the oceans detect local factors, which affect the stability of Ross’s ice shelf and predict how this will change and it will have an impact on the future sea level.

Previous studies have focused on the melting of the ice shelf on global warming. After three years of Rosetta’s figures, it shows that the Ross Ice Shelf melts due to the local surface water, and it is in the unexpected part of the shelf by melting it.

This study comes from the Rosetta-Ice project in Antarctica, a collection of three years of geological and oceanographic data. This project is very large in scope, in which there is a multi-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary team with special polar data collection devices.

New Way

The Rosetta team needed data on the temperature, salinity, depth and circulation of sea around the ice shelf.

Traditionally, these oceanographic data are obtained in two ways: research trips and deep anchors. Since sea ice is covered with sea ice for most of the year, therefore, ship-based measurements are restricted in the summer of Upper Australia for a short time.

On the other hand, established sensors can collect data for many years; However, they are generally not deployed more than 200 meters below the surface of the water to avoid the escape of icebergs, thus providing a less complete picture of what is happening around the ice shelf.

Rasheed scientists found a new way of collecting data from Ross Sagar. They deployed the “Independent Micro-Air Controller” or ALAMO, six side buoys.

They set up parachutes on boats and drove them down from the plane of the New York State National Guard by 2,500 feet above ice water.

The equipment was programmed to avoid sea ice, which could damage their external sensors and antennas. Apart from this, the team adopted a new method by sowing “parking” on the seabed between the profiling to reduce its drift on the sea currents.

Boom collected data of temperature and salinity from the sea to the surface, and every day the data was sent to the team through the satellite. Three years ago, seven other sowing published from a ship, away from the ice shelf, provided the record of the position of the sea in the north.

Local influence

Somewhere else in Antarctica, ice shelves are melted from the depths of the ocean to warmer, global flows, “said Dave Porter, a scientist from the Lamont Earth Observatory.

Damage to, and the answer is that, primarily because local meteorological processes on the front of the ice. ”

The team found that the main source of heat of the sea, which causes the melting of the ice shelf, is the sun which heats the upper ocean after the sea ice disappears in the region in summer; Sea ice reflects the sunlight while being absorbed by deep sea water.

The team measured the large amount of fresh water quickly in the Ross Sagar before melting ice shelves coming in the east of Ross Sagar.

Once this extra fresh water reaches the ice front, it changes the method of heat mixing from the surface to the ice shelf where the fusion occurs, from which the team concludes that the stability of the future Ross Cliff Amunen depends on the ocean’s changing coastal conditions. Close to the ice shelf in front

Scientists have observed that heating the oceans and melting the ice shelf may occur in the summer season, when the sea is free from ice, it lengthened – for example, if the local air that has the sea ice Pushing away from the ice shelf, it changes, giving more sunshine to reach the surface of the sea.

Scott Springer, co-author of Earth and Space Research, said, “The new way to collect data from continental shelves in Antarctica is to understand the future sea changes in the Antarctic ice sheet about the future sea changes surrounding the Antarctic.

Provides a new way to verify the reliability of the numerical model used for ” South “.

The importance of local conditions near the ice front also shows that the researchers should find them.

Researchers discovered how mosquitoes integrate the track and the odor

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Researchers discovered how mosquitoes integrate the track and the odor

Mosquitoes are smarter than people.

Scientists have found that mosquitoes change their fishing practices in response to host’s preaching.

For example, in Africa, mosquitoes now feel when people come out of the mosquito nets in the morning and start catching more often during the day than in the night.

Virginia Tech researcher Clement Fenger discovered a new neurological note associated with mosquitoes and their sense of smell, which tells how the Egyptian oyster mosquitoes track their prey.

Egyptian oasis mosquitoes are spread against dengue fever, chikungunya fever, zicha, and myro fever and yellow fever virus.

“Mosquitoes affect millions of people every year,” Vinager said, “I am working to understand how mosquitoes move in space and time.”

How to analyze the information of mosquitoes is important in analyzing the ways to make mosquitoes and nets to control mosquitoes.

Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Tech University.

While scientists understand a lot about the smell of mosquitoes and how they aim to take out carbon dioxide to find their host, little is known about how mosquitoes are seen.

Fenugar found that the interaction between mosquito’s brain’s olfactory and visual treatment centers helped these pests to target their victims very accurately.

These results were recently published in Current Biology.

When mosquitoes face carbon dioxide, they are attracted to dark visual objects in the form of their hosts.

This new study shows that carbon dioxide mosquito affects neuronal reactions in the visual centers, which helps them to track optical object more accurately.

Wingor and his research team identified mosquitoes with small three-dimensional helmets and identified them with CO2 emissions in contact with LED flight simulator and mosquito.

“We have seen the reaction of mosquitoes for visual and odor signals by tracking the frequency of wingspan, acceleration and frequency of behavior change,” said Fenugar.

Using calcium imaging experiments in the brains of mosquitoes, the research team found that carbon dioxide converts neuronal reactions of mosquitoes to separate visual stimuli.

In the previous research, Wingor had also used neurotic and neurological recordings to demonstrate how the reactions in the olfactory centers were modified through the experience of the previous mosquito, as they keep swats and keep them away from our smell Had learned from other efforts.

“Global strategies for managing mosquito-borne diseases include the control of the vector population, mainly through the application of pesticides, but mosquito-borne diseases are emerging again, due to high resistance to pesticides in most populations.”

Filling the major cognitive gap in our understanding of mechanisms allowing mosquitoes to create effective vector vectors, and in particular.

The host Identify and characterize factors controlling the behavior of researchers, “said Wigger, who is also an associate faculty member. BIOTRANS

Wingor’s Laboratory focuses on the study of daily pathogens and pathogenic pathogenesis of mosquito interactions, taking advantage of multi-disciplinary instruments from biochemistry, neuroscience, engineering and chemical ecology, to study this gene, How neurons and pest behaviors are.

Other researchers include Jeffrey Revel, Department of Biology Department Adrian Verhole and Department of Physiology and Biophysics at Washington University.

Flores Van Bregel of Mechanical Engineering Department at Nevro Reno University, Michael Dickinson of Caltech and Umar Akbarie of the University of California, San Diego.

This headset can be used to determine which state the state is rotating. The higher the number, the more speaker, the more accurately we can measure this rotation. ”

The measurement sensitivity provided by the overlay conditions should help identify and reduce the noise of motion, an important source of error that the researchers want to reduce the processing of quantum information using trapped ions.

NIST physicists make record-setting quantum speed

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NIST physicists make record-setting quantum speed

In a presentation of precision quantum control, the physicists of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a method to create an ion (an electrically charged atom), which displays the exact amount of quantum-level motion – a specified Up to the amount of 100 power packs or quinets – more than five previous records of 17.

Quantum mechanics, the basic principle of the atomic world, states that energy is released or absorbed in small parcels or bundles, which is called quantum.

By emitting quantities of atomic photons, or light emitting photovoltaic energy. When researchers hunt in the trap, the energy of the motor atoms is taken by the amount of phones, or speed.

In addition to producing single numbers, the NIST team controlled the pendulum-like motion of their ions at the same time to show the speed of two different quantities: Any number up to zero (minimum speed) plus 18 Such a “superposition” characteristic of the strange quantum world.

New methods were posted online on July 22, and new methods can be used with any quantum mechanical oscillator, which includes systems that oscillate like a normal pendulum or vibrate like spring.

Techniques can lead new kind of quantum simulators and sensors by using Phonon as information carriers.

In addition, the ability to customize the overlay can improve quantitative measurement and quantum information processing. Using ion in the overlay as an instrument to measure frequency of more than twice as compared to traditional measurements of ion vibration frequency.

“If we have quantitative control over an object, then we can discourage classic rules to reduce uncertainty in some directions which are necessary in other directions at the expense of further uncertainty,” said the first author Katie McCormick.

“We can use quantitative state as a ruler to measure the properties of the system, and the more we control the quantum, the longer the rulers are more stringent, the greater the quantity Can measure exact. ”

Experiments were performed using a single beryllium ion to carry 40 microns above the gold electrodes in the electromagnetic net radiator.

McCormick said that new results were possible because the Nest researchers were able to reduce undesirable factors such as stray electric fields that exchange energy with ions and interrupt it.

To add phonon to the ions, NIST researchers switched high ultraviolet laser pulses and above the difference between the two “spin” ions, or internal energy configuration. Every ion pulse “spin-up” with “spin down” or vice versa, ionic vibrations in each heart change with the addition of motion.

To make overlays, researchers applied these laser pulses to only half of the wave ion function (wave and rotation probability of particle state).

The second half of the wave function was in the position of the third rotation, which was not affected by laser pulses and remained sedentary.

A large number of overlays and NIST researchers of a sedentary ion state (or land) gave quantum boosters, or measurement sensitivity of accuracy.

He used ion as an interference meter, a device that splits two partial waves and integrates to form an interference pattern that can be analyzed to determine the frequency characteristics.

NIST researchers used interference meters to measure ionic frequency oscillation, which is usually the smallest uncertainty possible.

In particular, the accuracy of the measurement increased linearly with the number of motion quantum, even the best performance in the case of overlays 0 and 12, which provides more than twice the quantitative state sensitivity, which is classically Treats (numerically consist of a set of states).

The overlay position of 0 and 12 was seven times more accurate than 0 and over overlap 1.

To understand that overlapping cases help in measuring the frequency of ion oscillations more accurately, McCormick suggests to imagine a wheel with a speaker.

“Dolan is alternatively shown, describing the position and motion of an ion in a certain essence area,” said McCormick.

Because in this abstract representation, it can be visualized as a wheel with loudspeaker, which can be used to determine the rotation of the state is. The number of speakers, and more accurately we can measure this rotation. ”

The measurement sensitivity provided by the overlay conditions should help identify and reduce the noise of motion, an important source of error that the researchers want to reduce the processing of quantum information using trapped ions.

The parts of the robot are helpless alone, but as soon as they make the team, they become smart

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The parts of the robot are helpless alone, but as soon as they make the team,

When you envision a robot, you can shoot from Arsenals to Star Wars or Omnidroid R2-D2 or large armed machines making the assembly line on the assembly line.

But there is a new automated system that is not similar to any of these systems. Instead, some children have forgotten to take their toys.

Android is a collection of Neon Green Plastic Disks. Each of which is about 15 cm (6 in) long. Alone, a single disc can do a lot. It can only expand and shrink.

But when a bunch of discs come together, things change. The small magnets paste them on the outer edges of the disk simultaneously.

When a disk spreads or shrinks, it pushes or pulls its neighbors. All those small payments and withdrawals increase. Suddenly the whole point starts moving – very slowly.

Designers point out that each disc is a “particle”. While working as a system, they become what designers call “gross robots”.

The researchers shared their invention in nature on March 20th. In the new study, he also showed how the particle robot robot can accomplish simple tasks, such as mixing with light.

“This is an innovative system,” says Katja Sikara. He is a computer scientist at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who is designing many robotics systems.

Did not work on new inventions. But she says that it shows in different ways how people can build an automated system.

At one end of the robot group, you will find a single-entity device. Think about R2-D2. These robots are only contained in one body.

There are standard robots at the other end of the spectrum. These are the groups of different robots, each of which has its own work, but simultaneously performs a normal operation.

They include “swarm” robots, who talk to each other and share information about where they are roaming.

Sikara says that the new system is somewhere. Discs are individual units, but they come together to form a unified team.

They are treated by their interactions and physics rules, and not by telling anyone

Natural inspiration

Rishta Patra says, “We wanted to make a very simple robot that could respond to changes in the environment.” She is a graduate student at Columbia University in New York City and is part of a multi-university team behind the new particle robotics system.

Petra explains that the scientific nature behind the project was inspired by nature. In the human body, for example, individual cells work together as muscle tissues. Many other cell types also move together as a group.

Robot movement also reminds Petra of something else in the living world. “The point of pulse is fading,” like the Caterpillar movement. “It’s going to walk a little bit, then it goes.”

Although the discs do not communicate directly with each other, they can respond as a set of some signals. Scientists have shown sensor on each disc, which can detect light.

Then they expanded the disk based on the intensity of light and programmed to contract faster or slow.

When the researchers shone in bright light, their robot slipped into it – the result of all those personal expanses and contractions.

To ensure that the group of molecules will not be interrupted, the researchers had to think about how the friction would affect the disc.

Friction is the resistance between rubbing two surfaces simultaneously.

To beat the friction, the disc was hard enough to push. But they could not push each other until their magnets stopped working.

Other challenge researchers had to face to determine the size of the disk. For help, he took refuge in Chuck Huberman of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

When they are thrown into the air and then fall into small balls when caught, then smart plastic toys are tied together.

The new robot team recruited the Hoberman for designing a disc that would produce its “molecules”. Like their bodies, they also become bigger and smaller than the minimum effort.

In the end, scientists had to create a system that could work at different levels. So far, he has created physical robots with more than twenty bullets. But they wanted to show what could be done with a group of hundreds or thousands of particles.

From here, Petra came in. For two years I wrote a computer program in which the behavior of large groups was predicted. I explained how the system with 100,000 particles will run. The program also predicted what would happen if individual discs in the group stopped working.

“It was one of those beautiful things we could see,” she says. “How many of these particles can kill and still move?” Many, as it turned out.

Petra calculated on a robot made of hundreds of thousands – thousands of molecules. Its program predicted that even though one of the five disks has been disabled and the walk stopped, the system would be able to move as a group.

How these artists, math is their muse

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How these artists, math is their muse

Each year, a combined math meeting brings together more than 5,000 mathematical lovers. It is the largest meeting of mathematics in the world.

In January 2019, mathematicians had a meeting in Baltimore, Maryland to learn new ideas and talk about their work. Many believe it or not – came to the latest praise in sports art.

A full art exhibition was included in the meeting. Visitors paid attention to the metal, wood, porcelain and paper sculptures.

One of them was based on a highly rugged cube.

Many triangles, hexagons or other shapes are arranged in weird and amazing shapes and colors. The collection included illustrations and pictures inspired by the study of figures, curves, and patterns.

Mathematician Robert Fathahor, living near Phoenix, Arizona, organizes art exhibition at the annual math meeting. Every year, more artists do their work. His works explore new and innovative ways to transform mathematics into art.

Fatehur himself, on the thin edges of pottery or turnip, make pottery inspired by mathematical styles. He gets inspiration from seeing how mathematics emerges in everyday life.

“I always think about ideas,” he says.

Art and mathematics may seem like a strange pair. People usually experience art through their senses. They see a painting or listen to music.

If this art drives them forward, their emotional reaction will be. Resolving math problems is usually seen as something which you think about – and you do not feel it.

But the link between the two areas reaches back in time. In some ancient civilizations, sculptors and architectural engineers incorporated numbers and mathematical ideas into their works.

There are similarities in the pattern of Islamic art created thousands of years ago, which the mathematician still reads.

“A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a pattern maker,” wrote British mathematician Joe. Hardy in 1940. “If the mathematical patterns are more permanent, then it is because they have made ideas.

Contemporary artists continued to explore mathematics in search of inspiration and in new ways. For example, Fethiye created a printed version inspired by his hometown.

Three forms – scorpions, snakes and birds – are used to cover a flat surface. There is a reference to the design mosaic (Tess-uh-lay-shuns).

There are patterns that use interlocking geometric shapes for “tiling” or filling, two-dimensional aircraft. The artist lives in Phoenix city (depicted by a bird), where no one can confront scorpions and diamonds.

The art of mathematics is growing. For example, in the 2004 United Mathematical meeting, only 10 artists were included in the exhibition. By 2019, this number was 94. “We have more orders than Fatehur notes.”

World exhibitions, art museums and festivals organized art exhibitions for mathematics. In 1998, mathematicians started the bridge organization, which celebrates the relationship between mathematics and art, music, architecture and culture.

Each year, the bridge organizes a meeting to celebrate these intersections.

Bridge conferences include artistic presentations and talks on research in mathematics, art, poetry lessons and even art-inspired plays and dance.

The math art community now includes hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, maybe thousands of people.

Exotic shapes and four dimensional tourists

Liz Bali is an artist in Durham, NC. A ceramic sculpture was displayed in the joint meeting of 2019, a mathematical form known as the Klein Bottle.

(Named for the German mathematician he described for the first time.) This form is special because if you follow their curves, you will travel on the surface and you will end there where you started.

In this way, Klein’s bottle contains only one side.

Billy says that he has designed Klein bottles for years. I accidentally learned about size. During the teaching of pottery, some years ago, he made a pot that he did not like.

“I did not hear Billy about him, so I started to study why this figure has been abnormal, then started the purpose of making it, experimenting with different glass styles and surfaces.” I have made them since then, “he notes.

The Klein bottle is similar to the Mobis Bar, which you can make once by turning the paper curved and then pressing the sides simultaneously. “People can not appreciate how difficult it is to do this kind of work,” Fatouir says.

Paley design is as close as possible to a real Klein bottle. This is because the real Cleen bottle should pass through itself, which is interesting to think – but it is impossible to get the actual fact.